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Chapter 10. Operators

Operator Precedence

The precedence of an operator specifies how "tightly" it binds two expressions together. For example, in the expression 1 + 5 * 3, the answer is 16 and not 18 because the multiplication ("*") operator has a higher precedence than the addition ("+") operator. Parentheses may be used to force precedence, if necessary. For instance: (1 + 5) * 3 evaluates to 18.

The following table lists the precedence of operators with the lowest-precedence operators listed first.

Table 10-1. Operator Precedence

AssociativityOperators
left,
leftor
leftxor
leftand
rightprint
right = += -= *= /= .= %= &= |= ^= <<= >>=
left? :
left||
left&&
left|
left^
left&
non-associative== != === !==
non-associative< <= > >=
left<< >>
left+ - .
left* / %
right! ~ ++ -- (int) (float) (string) (array) (object) @
right[
non-associativenew

Note: Although ! has a higher precedence than =, PHP will still allow expressions similar to the following: if (!$a = foo()), in which case the output from foo() is put into $a.

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